Glossary of Terms

Bench Cut- Removes vigorous, upright shoots back to a side branch growing outward from the center of the tree, it opens up the center of the tree.

Branch Bark Ridge- Area of a trees crouch , where the growth of two adjoining limbs pushes bark into a ridge.

Crows Foot- Incorrect development due to improper pruning , i.e. three or four branches leading from the end of a lateral branch.

Dead Wood- Branch wood which is no longer viable, can be caused by insect/disease. Color is ashen.

Fruit Wood- Smaller limbs growing from the dominant lateral branches.

Central Leader- Development of a single trunk growing in the center of a tree.

Fruit Buds- small knobs , found on smaller limbs throughout the tree. Flowers grow to form fruit.

Dominate Lateral- Main lateral branch that grows from the trunk.

Heading Cut- Removes the end of a small shoot/limb, promotes branching below the cut. Also used to control size.

Latent Buds- Dormant buds that are suppressed within the growing tissue of branches. Triggered by heading cuts and sun exposure.

New Growth- Growth from the ends of small branches/twigs the color is darker than older wood.

Old Wood- Existing wood behind new growth on branches. Color is dull.

Open Center- System of training the forms of fruit trees. Consists of a trunk with three to five main lateral branches.

Suckers- Growth of small twigs from base of tree. Remove these as they detract nutrients and water.

Sun Scald- Burnt and cracked tissue due to excessive pruning, usually found on the top of main laterals.

Terminal End- Knob at the end of a shoot/branch.

Thinning Cut- Removal of an entire branch from a parent or side lateral.

Wood Callus- Formation of tissue that closes a cut.

Wood Paint- A treatment used to cover cuts on trees.


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